By accident the OP took one command in the answer Remove Ubuntu and grow Mac partition literally and entered:
gpt add -b 409640 -i 2 -s 118430560 -t 53746F72-6167-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC /dev/disk0
to add a partition table entry, though his original macOS volume was much larger. The command above creates a ~60 GB CoreStorage partition right after the EFI partition.
No output of the previous partition table was available
(sudo) gpt -r show diskX.
To recreate the partition table an external volume with a full macOS install, wxHexEditor and some knowledge about the typical sizes and internal structures of macOS recovery volumes is necessary.
- Install macOS to a thumb drive and configure it.
- Download and install wxHexEditor
- Search for the typical start blocks of the Recovery HD like in this answer.
- Recreate the Recovery HD with
gpt add -i 3 ...
- Recreate the main macOS volume between EFI and Recovery HD partition
gpt add -i 2 ...
- Verify the disk and the volumes with
diskutil verify[Disk|Volume] diskYsX
- Expand the recovered main volume