Update: I was mistaken about the hard drive size, there was no corruption of the disk nor a mistake in the displayed size.
This is a question of many parts. The gist is captured by the title: I mounted using target disk mode and the capacity (of what should be a 160.04 gb drive) is 60.01 gb. The question is, how is this possible?
I tried to wipe the drive of an old MacBook and install Lubuntu. The install itself failed because I'd accidentally corrupted the boot disk, leaving me with a non-functional laptop. In order to solve the problem, I decided to clone a functional MacBook drive onto it, then start over with a new boot disk. (A clean install without an OS was not working, I'm hoping this will)
I did do a web search, I found someone with a similar issue who was mounting because they had hard drive problems. I did not have hard drive problems to begin with, does this indicate that I do now? If so, what about a bad install would decrease the capacity of a hard drive? How does it actually decrease the capacity of an HDD?
EDIT: some terminal output
admin$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *160.0 GB disk0 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_HFS Macintosh HD 159.7 GB disk0s2 /dev/disk1 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *60.0 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_HFS Macintosh HD 59.7 GB disk1s2 admin$ sudo gpt -r show disk1 start size index contents 0 1 PMBR 1 1 Pri GPT header 2 32 Pri GPT table 34 6 40 409600 1 GPT part - C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B 409640 116538416 2 GPT part - 48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC 116948056 262151 117210207 32 Sec GPT table 117210239 1 Sec GPT header