Is it possible to lock my MacBook to my Apple ID so that if it gets stolen (macOS) is useless when someone tries to reinstall it?
There's no activation lock on macOS, however you can enable Lost Mode using Find My Mac. This will lock the Mac with a PIN, which will be required to use the Mac again, and cannot be bypassed by reinstalling macOS.
Lock your Mac
You can use Find My Mac to remotely lock your Mac with a passcode. You can also display a custom message on its screen.