When I use imagemagick's convert jpeg to pdf tool:

convert *.jpeg output.pdf

an output PDF is created, but what I've noticed is that the even pages get rotated by 180°.

What's even stranger is that if I open the even pages with Preview, rotate them 90° right and then rotate them 90° left, and then save it and run the convert command again, the page doesn't get rotated 180°.

Is there anything I'm doing wrong over here?

1 Answer 1


It seems like the scanner I used to scan the documents I was trying to make PDFs of was saving the images with an orientation property. These were the two properties:

Orientation: 1 (Normal)

Orientation: 3 (Rotated 180°)

So, although it looked as though the images were upright, every second image would technically be flipped 180°, which is the property that imagemagick would use.

Removing this property from multiple images should be possible on macOS using a tool like ExifTool.

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