My energy saver preferences are as follows:
However, no matter what I set the slider to, my MacBook Pro is going to sleep after one minute. What is wrong here?
My first instinct would be to reset the SMC.
Resetting the SMC
To do this on your particular MBP, follow these steps:
Also, you should probably reset the NVRAM as well.
Resetting the NVRAM on Late-2016 MacBook Pro models
For all Late-2016 MacBook Pro models (with and without Touch Bar) follow these steps:
[EDIT - Screensaver]
Since resetting the NVRAM and SMC have had no effect, perhaps you should check your Screensaver settings to see if it's kicking in after one minute? To check this: