If you put your phone in tethering mode, you can hook it up to the computer via USB and SSH to the IP address of your phone's tether or hotspot interface. You could also do it over WiFi or BlueTooth. The IP address of the phone shows up as your laptop's tethered connection's gateway.
"Keep my security while still being jailbroken."
Yeah.. um, no. You defeated security mechanisms on it to add customization. It's a trade-off. If you're that concerned about potential security risks, you shouldn't have jailbroken the phone.
There is no way to get to the phone's console except from the phone itself without using SSH.
SSH ("Secure SHell") is plenty secure between your laptop and iPhone, especially with WPA on WiFi, if you're not going through any untrusted network devices.
SSH over USB tethering is your most secure option. You'll want to turn the phone and laptop radios off if you really don't want the SSH server on the phone exposed to the world when it's enabled.