What is the proper name/number of the proper cable to get the fastest
charging and data transfer for the new MacBook Pro?
Charging has more to do with the adapter than it does with the cable.
The new MacBook Pro uses an 87W/61W (15" and 13" MacBook Pro respectively) power adapter. So, if you use a 60W power adapter it will charge, but slowly regardless of the cable. To get the maximum speed, you need a charger equal to or greater than the specified power adapter rating.
As of the time of this writing, there are no USB-C power adapter greater than 61W available. Unfortunately, you have to use the Apple supplied power adapter until 3rd party adapters are released onto the market. That said, the 87W power adapter will work just fine on the MacBook Pro 13" (61W).
Any USB-C cable will be able to handle up to 100W of power. My recommendation is to get a good cable from a reputable manufacturer. I have always had good results with Anker products
If you have a USB-C cable (it conforms to the USB 3.1 specification) it will handle transfer speeds of 10Gbs. Period. If it's a USB-C cable, that's the maximum you will get.
If you have a Thunderbolt device (storage) then you need to get a Thunderbolt 3 cable. Belkin makes a high quality Thunderbolt 3 cable. The data transfer rate is 40Gbs. While it uses a USB-C connector, and carries the USB signal, unlike a USB cable, it also carries the Thunderbolt signal thus the price difference.
Important: You will not get higher data transfer rates by plugging in a USB-C type Thunderbolt cable into a USB-C device. You will get USB-C speeds of 10Gbs
What cable do you get?
The question is, what are you connecting?
If you are connecting a USB device, then get the USB cable. If you are connecting a Thunderbolt device, then get a Thunderbolt cable. Regardless, both cables will charge at whatever rate your power adapter can deliver and will transfer data only as fast as your device will allow.