Edited to simplify question:

using host file, we can redirect a domain (example.com) to localhost: example.com

How can we redirect an ip (for example to localhost (web server port 80) using Murus firewall’s custom pf rules?

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Action: block, pass, rdr, rdr pass, dummynet, no dummynet
Direction: in, out
Protocol: all, tcp, udp, icmp, igmp, gre, esp
Interface: all, gif0, stf0, en0, p2p0, utun0

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  • What other actions are there besides "block"? – nohillside Jan 2 '17 at 15:06
  • You can only redirect incoming traffic - now it depends where you configure pf: on or on another Mac configured as a router. If you want to redirect the outgoing traffic from and to with pf you have to re-route the traffic locally first to make it "incoming". – klanomath Jan 2 '17 at 15:27
  • @patrix Thanks for your reply. I have updated my post to show other actions – Basem Jan 2 '17 at 15:37
  • @klanomath Thank you very much for your feedback. I'm configuring pf on and yes, I want to redirect outgoing traffic from to to return again to May you please provide more about re-routing traffic locally? – Basem Jan 2 '17 at 15:45

IMHO your web server environment is flawed because you may simply replace by in the sources instead of routing packets from to lo0 ( keep state) and later redirecting them from lo0 to the source en0( again.

But in other setups it may be useful. E.g. if you run a second web server mimicking the Amazon Linux AMI Test Page at localhost or

rdr only accepts incoming packets. Thus, you have to first route those packets to lo0, then add an rdr rule there (which will catch them as they will be routed in from "somewhere") to send them to your local web server at

The order in the config file is necessarily rdr incomming packets, then filter packets (like pass), but chronologically the 2nd rule will hit first (on en0), which will then activate the first rule (on lo0).

# Step "2". redirect those same packets that were routed to lo0 below
rdr pass log on lo0 proto tcp from en0 to port 80 -> port 80
# Step "1". Route new IPv4 TCP connections leaving en0 to lo0
pass out on en0 route-to lo0 proto tcp from en0 to port 80 keep state

in pf.conf this would look like this:

scrub-anchor "com.apple/*"
nat-anchor "com.apple/*"
rdr-anchor "com.apple/*"
rdr pass log on lo0 proto tcp from en0 to port 80 -> port 80
dummynet-anchor "com.apple/*"
anchor "com.apple/*"
load anchor "com.apple" from "/etc/pf.anchors/com.apple"
pass out on en0 route-to lo0 proto tcp from en0 to port 80 keep state

In the above example you would have to change the interface en0 to e.g. en1 if en0 doesn't have the IP but en1 does.

Unload your current pf.conf and stop pf: sudo pfctl -d. Then add the two additional lines above. After modifying pf.conf check the syntax of the file with sudo pfctl -vnf /etc/pf.conf which should result in the following output:

pfctl: Use of -f option, could result in flushing of rules
present in the main ruleset added by the system at startup.
See /etc/pf.conf for further details.

scrub-anchor "/*" all fragment reassemble
nat-anchor "/*" all
rdr-anchor "/*" all
rdr pass log on lo0 inet proto tcp from to port = 80 -> port 80
anchor "/*" all
pass out on en0 route-to lo0 inet proto tcp from to port = 80 flags S/SA keep state
dummynet-anchor "/*" all

and if successful load it with sudo pfctl -e -f /etc/pf.conf.

After shutting down the web server on port 80 you can test this with netcat:

In a terminal window enter sudo nc -l 80. In a second terminal window enter sudo nc 80. Now enter some text in the second nc session and hit the enter key. The text should appear in the first, "listening" nc session. You can also enter text in the listening session which should appear in the second window. To end the session enter ctrlD in either of the two nc sessions.

  • @Basem I'm still searching for a proper "route-to"-rule in Murus. I will add it as soon as I have found one. The rdr is easy to create in Murus. – klanomath Jan 2 '17 at 20:17
  • Yes, please. It's really great to do this. I will have a close monitoring for this post looking forward to see it. – Basem Jan 2 '17 at 20:19

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