Lack of screen refreshing is often a sign of something failing in the video card or perhaps even a damaged/corrupted video driver. This is a bit problematic on a Mac as it is rarely even possible to remove and re-install a video driver, which would be a simple and free first step.
Depending on what is going on you may want to update (or re-upadte) your system with the latest combo updater. With the hopes that it will re-install or update the current video driver with a 'clean' version.
I would, however, be tempted to run a cleaner/maintenance app to make sure there are no corrupted cache files and all necessary maintenance scripts and disk/filesystem repairs are done before running the combo updater. My recommendation would be the free utility Onyx. Download and run it (First quit out of all open apps), give it your password and allow it to verify your disk. Then use the automation tab and let it do it's thing. Reboot when done and apply the Combo updater.
After that reboot if the issue has not gone away and you are sure it is not related to any specific app or family of apps (like all your Adobe apps that might share a graphics library...) it may be a hardware issue, which could be diagnosed at an Apple store with a Genius Bar appointment.
If you want to try one more thing and have the time and equipment, you might consider installing a fresh copy of macOS on an external drive along with one or two of the apps that demonstrate the issue most readily. Possibly even a different version of the OS than you currently use. This would show if the combo updater really fixed any video driver issues and guarantee a clean OS and application install. In effect eliminating any and all software variables lurking in your current system,