The original macOS installer apps are not distributed as images (i.e. dmg files). So you won't find a digitally signed macOS Installer.dmg, dmg signing is possible though: How to add codesigning to dmg file in mac.
However, you can check the codesigning of the macOS/OS X Installer.app and the sha sum of the InstallESD.dmg (which contains the files which will be installed to your disk later):
codesign -dv --verbose=4 /Volumes/InstallMavericks/Install\ OS\ X\ Mavericks.app
shasum /Volumes/InstallMavericks/Install\ OS\ X\ Mavericks.app/Contents/SharedSupport/InstallESD.dmg
Compare the shasum result with the following list: Apple Installer Checksums. If the checksum is different the dmg is tampered.
The name of the mounted Mavericks.dmg (i.e. InstallMavericks) is just an example - so use the proper path to the macOS/OS X Installer.app.