This is really two separate questions, but as both are very much Mac Basics, let me have a go at both in one...
The green dot is not Maximise, it is Full-Screen. Full-screen moves an app into its own Space & removes the menu bar, unless you hover the cursor near the top of the screen. You can escape from this by hovering at the top & clicking the green button, or often the Esc key will perform the same task.
Maximise will preserve the Menu Bar & share the screen with any other app also open.
To specifically Maximise, rather than Full-Screen you need to hold Opt ⌥ [sometimes labelled Alt ⌥ the same as Windows] as you click the green button [you will see the twin arrows in the dot change to a + sign instead, see below]. Opt/clicking again will then Restore, same as Windows & you will also still have the yellow button available to Minimise.
Your other issue, with applications remaining in the Dock is that Mac, unlike Windows, does not quit an app when the last window is closed. (There are some exceptions to that, System Prefs, for example, will quit if you close the window.)
This is an essential difference between the two platforms.
If you want to quit an app, use Cmd ⌘ Q or Quit from the File menu.
This allows your current workspace in that app to be remembered & restored the next time you launch the app. Windows cannot do that.
If you close all windows first, then Quit, that workspace will be forgotten.
It would be well worth spending an hour or two going through the Apple knowledge base on Mac Basics to familiarise yourself with how it works.
I would especially have a look at Spaces & Mission Control [multiple desktops] because that may be your ideal way to work without having to maximise/minimise all the time