When I open System Preferences, go to Privacy, unlock the pane with my password. When I click on the 'Turn on Location Services' checkbox, the computer freezes, and the box turn blue and immediately turns white. How do I fix this?
What you are describing sounds similar, but not identical, to the problems discussed in this Reddit thread. No solution to the problem was presented there besides one suggestion of a possible script to enable it.
To give you a better answer, though, it would be helpful to know more about your setup. What type of Mac do you have (how much RAM too), does the WiFi work like normal, which version of OS X are you running, how long have you experienced the issue, did anything lead up to it, and are there any other details that might be unusual and relevant.
You might be able to get more professional assistance by sending a direct message to Apple Support's Twitter account. There may be specific diagnostics to try.
Some other ideas to try would be to repair disk permissions (depending on which version of OS X you're on) or verify disk in Disk Utility. Or log in to a guest or other new user account to see if it is specific to your account or not. Or you can try resetting the P-RAM. Or in the end of the day you may just need to make a backup, reinstall OS X, and restore.
Try clearing temporary/cache files
These files are automatically generated and don't contain any of your data. Sometimes, they will corrupt and create problems similar to yours.
Please backup all data and read the entire answer before proceeding.
First, copy the below path and paste it into the Go to Path dialog box found by going into the Go menu in Finder, or right-click it and select
Services ▹ Reveal in Finder. It might be simply
Services ▹ Reveal.
A folder should open with another folder in it selected. The selected folder would be
zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000sm00006d. Select only that folder and move it to the Trash. Do not tamper with the rest of the folder.
You may be prompted for your administrator login. After you empty the Trash, restart your computer. Turning on Location Services should now work.