Based on my answer here: Using Server 5.0.15 to share internet WITHOUT internet sharing I provide a possibility to share internet with PF and dnsmasq (i.e. without Apple's OS X Server):
To get NAT working without using Internet Sharing you have to use a pf rule and create a plist to enable forwarding and load the pf rule. Additionally you have to set up a DNS/DHCP server: dnsmasq.
Below I assume en0: the interface connected to the internet or a router and en1: the interface connected to the LAN. The router has the IP 192.168.0.1 and the netmask 255.255.255.0.
ifconfig to get the device names.
Prepare the Mac gateway:
Set up the two interfaces en0 and en1 with fixed IPs and netmasks
en0: IP: 192.168.0.2 Netmask: 255.255.255.0 Gateway: 192.168.0.1 DNS: 126.96.36.199 and 127.0.0.1 Search Domains: home.org
en1: IP: 192.168.1.1 Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Disable System Integrity Protection if El Capitan is installed
- Install Xcode Command Line tools/Xcode
- Install, set up and doctor brew
brew install dnsmasq
Set up and configure dnsmasq
cp /usr/local/opt/dnsmasq/dnsmasq.conf.example /usr/local/etc/dnsmasq.conf
sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/var/lib/misc
sudo touch /usr/local/var/lib/misc/dnsmasq.leases
open /usr/local/etc/dnsmasq.conf with an editor and modify at least the following lines:
~ line 144
# 3) Provides the domain part for "expand-hosts"
~ line 163
# don't need to worry about this.
~ line 243
# Always give the host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
# the name fred and IP address 192.168.0.60 and lease time 45 minutes
**use the proper MAC of your raspberry here**
~ line 536
# This defaults to a sane location, but if you want to change it, use
# the line below.
You may configure much more - just check the config file and its descriptions.
sudo brew services start dnsmasq
sudo chmod 644 /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.dnsmasq.plist
sudo chown root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.dnsmasq.plist
Create a file named nat-rules in /private/etc/ with the following content
nat on en0 from en1 to any -> (en0)
Create a shell script named nat-pf.sh enabling forwarding and loading the pf rule. I saved it in /usr/local/bin:
sysctl -w net.inet.ip.forwarding=1
sysctl -w net.inet.ip.fw.enable=1
#flushes all pfctl rules
pfctl -F all
#starts pfctl and loads the rules from the nat-rules file
pfctl -f /private/etc/nat-rules -e
Create a plist named org.user.natpf.plist with the following content and save it in /Library/LaunchDaemons/ to execute the above shell script at start-up:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
All three files need a trailing empty line so don't simply copy the above code/lines.
Modify ownership and file modes:
sudo chown root:wheel /private/etc/nat-rules
sudo chown root:wheel /usr/local/bin/nat-pf.sh
sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/nat-pf.sh
sudo chown root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.user.natpf.plist
Load the launch daemon:
sudo launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.user.natpf.plist
Reboot your gateway Mac. If everything works fine enable SIP again.
The file /tmp/org.user.natpf.stderr contains error messages. You may add a similar key to the file /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.dnsmasq.plist to get potential error messages:
Prepare your Internet Router (if you have one)
- Add a static route: Network: 192.168.1.0 Netmask: 255.255.255.0 Gateway: 192.168.0.2
Prepare your Raspberry
- You may have to reboot it.
After setting all things up successfully you should have a reliable LAN with NAT, DHCP and DNS. You may even enter
ping raspberry with a proper result.
If you run into problems leave acomment.