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This question already has an answer here:

Why are they asking me for this? What is it used for?

EDIT: Some have suggested that this is a recent effort to encrypt all of the iCloud data: https://www.reddit.com/r/apple/comments/4b70xy/starting_with_ios_93_apple_will_encrypt_icloud/?st=irfs7s30&sh=2a9995dc

marked as duplicate by bmike iphone Nov 25 '17 at 15:58

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I think that you've selected to use your iCloud account, so by verifying your Passcode with you iphone Apple added a security to be sure that you are the owner of your iCloud Account. This will allow your Mac to synchronise your data from iCloud.

  • Yes, I had just signed in, and had to enter a new two-factor code to do so. So, you think Apple is putting through another request from the Mac to the iPhone? Is it documented anywhere? – jaydisc Aug 3 '16 at 10:08
  • Apple has implemented this security since it concerns the security of your Apple ID account. For example, to synchronize your saved passwords in Safari (mac), it asks you to authorize your Mac from your iPhone or iPad. Some informations here : support.apple.com/en-us/HT204915 / support.apple.com/en-us/HT204085 – Mehdi Chennoufi Aug 3 '16 at 13:19
  • Both of the two services you mention use distinctively different interfaces. 1. I have Two-Factor configured, and BEFORE I reached the screenshot about, I had to approved the sign-in on my iPhone and entered a 6-digit code on the Mac. Two-factor should not have anything to do with the device's passcode. 2. With iCloud Keychain, the extra authentication occurs on an EXISTING device, not the newly configured device. – jaydisc Aug 3 '16 at 22:52

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