I was wondering if the X Ray machines at the airport can damage laptops (specifically a rMBP..) or their components (SSD, Battery and so on....)?
If you're asking about the carry-on scanners the answer is no.
I'd be very surprised if the hold baggage scanners had any effect either.
In the past I've irradiated a variety of computers and devices with energies and doses in excess of what a regular airport carry-on baggage scanner offers.
This FDA item might offer some independent reassurance