I know if a disk is not ejected properly, that can cause corruption or data loss on that disk. But can it cause problems with the Mac as well, such as with the file directory? And if it did cause problems with the computer, would those be limited to how it relates to the disk in question?
If you were transferring content to your computer from the disk, the write could be left incomplete. The main purpose of ejecting is to make sure everything actually transferred properly, but if nothing is transferring, issues are unlikely on the computer and the disk. Although improper ejection can damage the disk, it does not damage the computer.