Today (with some recent changes to the apple.com web site) You can access basic repair data at:
Once you sign in, you may find that some case notes are not associated with your AppleID depending on how you initiated service and what was typed into the repair database system.
The functionality at https://supportprofile.apple.com also is spotty recently, but in the past that was a reliable source of repair and ownership information of devices registered to a specific Apple ID.
In general, the answer to your question is No - the full contents of Apple's repair database is only accessible to people that are trained in Apple's privacy policies. Your detailed notes also are not generally available to you - just summary information about some cases. If you need more data than you can access, contact AppleCare - online, phone or the genius bar to retrieve a case history and/or request information from case notes.
In specific, businesses can get added details through the Joint Venture program or as a self-servicing AppleCare account. Both cost money whether you pay annually or have 1,000 deployed devices across your business.