There's no real easy answers to this. It's going to depend on such things as how much memory your system has, what the apps are, how well are they written etc.
For example, if you have a small amount of memory and checking Activity Monitor shows little memory available, or a lot of swap space being used. Then you probably want to ensure apps are quit to make more memory available. Adding to the confusing around this is the fact that even though you quit an app, OS X doesn't remove it from memory until it needs the space for something else. This is why quitting and reopening an app is faster than the first time you started it. If the app is still in memory, OS X only has to start it again. Of course, in a memory tight situation, OS X automatically removes apps from memory which have been quit so that the memory can be available for something else.
Apps which you have closed all windows for, but not quit, can effect the system. It depends on what they do. So memory, CPU, battery can all be consumed. Again Activity Monitor is your friend in determining whether any of your apps are causing problems.
Generally speaking, if you have enough memory, and your apps are well behaved in terms of sucking on your battery, then whether you quit or close is not going to matter. Luckily, OS X apps are generally quite well behaved.