Is there any way to view iOS device logs on the Terminal?
it's a cross-platform lib talking to iDevices with no jailbrake needed. just use console command
you can install it via homebrew or compile from sources
macOS install via homebrew
$ ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
$ brew install -v --devel --fresh automake autoconf libtool wget libimobiledevice
$ brew install -v --HEAD --fresh --build-from-source ideviceinstaller
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libimobiledevice ideviceinstaller
Yes you can see iOS system logs from the the Mac command line.
Install Apple Configurator. It has an official helper tool to show the log files and perform other handy tasks.
The help command is quite useful and you can install it from the "Install Automation Tools..." menu item once you run Apple Configurator 2
Take this with a grain of salt as I have never gone looking for IOS device logs but there are apps out there (iExplorer comes to mind, there are others) that let you explore the file system of a connected IOS device and/or the contents of iTunes backups of the device. That may allow you to do what you want.