Is there a way to sync/save OSX's own settings, preferences, etc to iCloud?
I use OSX El Capitan.
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In short: No, not easily.
There is no officially sanctioned or supported way to sync your preferences to any cloud service.
A longer version: Maybe, but it will be unsafe and prone to breakage.
While you might have some limited success symlinking either folders or individual files into a cloud storage provider's folder, I would advice against it.
Disclosure: I have synced some user folders myself this way, but only very specific items (e.g. my customized Sublime Text things). However, even with such limited setups I've had problems. (For example the license I own didn't get properly synced without tweaks.)
I use Mackup – it works great, and supports iCloud (as well as DropBox, Google Drive, etc.)
But I highly recommend you configure it to ONLY backup the apps/settings you want. Otherwise it can make a big mess of your system.
(Its default configuration is to backup ALL the apps it supports, which in my experience is a bad idea.)