Is there a way to login and access your OneDrive account with the OneDrive application from the Mac Store with your school/company account? At the moment, my credentials are not recognized.
I didn't know there were two separate versions of OneDrive, one for schools/companies, that is called OneDrive Business and one for normal Microsoft Accounts that is just called OneDrive. According to the official homepage OneDrive for Business is not available (yet) for OS X. Although as stated here, it is coming and a preview version is available for download now. And fortunately, it works.
OneDrive for Business is also making its debut on OS X today, in the form of a sync client available as a public preview from the Microsoft Download Center.