If I earn over $150 in my account, for example: $500, how much money
will I receive?
Depends on what you mean by "earn". There are two stats: "Sales" and "Proceeds". If your app receives $500 (sales), Apple will take its cut (like 33%) and you will earn like $335 (proceeds).
You can go to iTunes Connect, then Sales and Trends, and you will see the two stats there.
I've known that Apple will fund every month, additionally, after 45 days of the first day of the month, is that correct?
If by "fund" you mean "send money to my bank account", this isn't always true. Apple will normally do it every month, but there are cases in which it will delay the payment for several months (this tends to happen if your proceeds exceed a certain threshold - I imagine its for security/verification reasons). So it is possible that Apple will retain the profit of 2 or more months and pay at another month.
And yes, I believe that the very first month of sales (or 45 days) is always delayed. So your first payment will usually correspond to the first two months of sales.
I started sale of my app at July 16, 2015, so what day does money
arrived to my bank account?
Well, you will definitely not get anything on July. I suspect that you won't receive a payment in August either. You will probably receive your first payment on September (or late August), and from this point on, further payments will occur each month (normally).
In addition, how do I calculate this?
Go to iTunes Connect. There is a section (I forgot how it is called, I think it is "financial" or "payments" something like that). You can observe here how much Apple owes you per month. This amount is what they are supposed to pay you.
Since you begun sales very recently, it is likely you won't find any data here yet.
Apple can be late with payments. It's normal. Simply keep track of the "amount owed" in iTunes Connect and you're pretty much guaranteed that the payment will be performed in a future.