I have an SSD hard drive from MacBook Pro late 2012 (A1425). Is there a possibility to somehow connect it to a normal PC through SATA, PCIe etc.?
It appears to be possible.
According to this iFixit tear down, the A1425 SSD
It's a Samsung MZ-DPC2560/0A2 unit, rated at 3.3 volts and 2.39 amps. The serial number reads S0X5NYAC703706.
Which appears to have an mSATA connector. There are lots of mSATA to whatever-you-may-need adapters on the market.
I haven't tried any of this myself, just did a search for it.
This question 28 pin SSD adapter or enclosure needed for Late 2014 MBP points to certain incompatibilities to be aware of before buying.