I have a late 2011 MacBook Pro (MD322LL/A) given to me by a friend. The hard drive was removed, so I put in a new one and have been trying to install OS X Yosemite. However, whenever I boot the install media, be it a flash drive, hard drive, or DVD, the installation gets about 1/3 of the way through and then goes to a blank white or grey screen. When this happens, whatever install media it was reading from, it stops accessing, as if the system had halted. If I boot in verbose mode and look at the output, these are the last lines before the screen turns blank:
fGPUIdleIntervalMS = 0 [AGPM Controller] build GPUDict by Vendor1882Device6741 DSMOS has arrived
This leads me to believe the issue lies with the GPU, but I am not sure how I could confirm this. I was able to install Windows 8.1 on this Mac, however I can't install the AMD nor Intel graphics drivers so I am unable to confirm if they are working that way. Is there anything else I can try? Any help is greatly appreciated.
I was able to confirm that the GPU was at fault by installing OS X to a hard drive on another Mac, putting that hard drive in the MacBook Pro, and then booting to single user mode and entering the following:
cd /System/Library mkdir ExtensionsDisabled mv Extensions/AMD* ExtensionsDisabled/
This prevented any kernel extension related to the AMD GPU from being loaded and forced the Mac to boot using the Intel GPU, which works as a temporary fix. The real fix is, as answered below, a new logic board, which Apple will replace for you.