I have been searching for a terminal command line to disconnect or connect 802.1x authentication, but not the network interface. I was searching some help pages and it showed command lines to export and import 802.1x settings/certificates but not disconnecting and connecting.

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This button is tied to the eapolclient. When it's connected, you can disconnect it by killing the eapolclient process:

$ ps ax | grep eapol
83601   ??  Ss     0:00.05 /System/Library/SystemConfiguration/EAPOLController.bundle/Contents/Resources/eapolclient -i en0
$ sudo kill 83601

When I do this the GUI button switches to show it's disconnected. The bad news is, I don't know how you can start it again :(

Perhaps you can achieve the same by turning the interface off/on:

 sudo ifconfig <interface> down
 sudo ifconfig <interface> up

Disconnecting from WiFi Networks

sudo ln -s /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport /usr/local/bin/airport
sudo airport --disassociate

Run these commands in Terminal. Your WiFi will disconnect, while the AirPort Network Interface remains enabled.

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