I like to do things a little differently and this involves separating the problem into two distinct parts - OS and Hardware.
Let's look at hardware first. I like to use Ultimate Boot CD as it has a number of great utilities to test out your Mac. It runs on Linux so it completely eliminates OS X from the equation. And if you are wondering, yes, this will boot and work on your Mac. I have been doing it on Macs going back to 2006.
First, download, burn, and boot Ultimate Boot CD. There are a number of HDD utilities you can run that will test out your drive for you.
There is a USB Flash Boot Drive option instead of a CD (I personally use this).
Boot your machine by holding down the "Option" key before you hear the boot chime. You will then be able to choose your boot device.
There are a number of HDD tests you can run. Pick a simple test and run it.
Next, ff everything passes, try using a utility to delete/create a partition
If all works here, then you can attempt to create the bootcamp partition again.
Let us know what happens.