For example, I need to know where the Automator folder icon is. I want to use it for a thing.
Most system folder icons and stuff are in
/System/Library/CoreServices/CoreTypes.bundle/* But these folder icons are not. Where are they located?
I think you are looking for either of the following files:
Without clarification I can only guess what you want but I think I figured out that you want the folder icons shown within iCloud Drive. It seems like those icons are just a generic folder icon with the relevant app icon superimposed on top of it.