The simple answer is, there is no way to be absolutely certain. Furthermore, you likely signed agreement to the standard AppleCare Repair Terms and Conditions so from a legal standpoint, you have agreed to the AppleCare Repair Service terms and conditions by signing your property and data over to Apple.
The more probable answer is that, as Apple employees, they have very likely signed some kind of non-disclosure agreement, prohibiting them from looking any further than to fix the issue, on pain of dismissal or legal proceedings.
Condensing some of the comments into this answer…
It is possible that the entire drive could be cloned, without your knowledge. Physical possession of the drive is one of the easiest ways to access the data on it.
If encrypted, that clone would be of little use without the encryption password - not necessarily the same as the login password.
This would not show on any kind of key-logging software, as it could be easily done by removing the drive from the machine.
However… The chances of this actually happening to a machine given to Apple for repair are virtually nil.
If it was ever documented as having happened, their stock would collapse, along with their credibility.
This is not the same kind of breach as a couple of celebrities being phished or socially-engineered for their details, this would be a whole new level of distrust.
It is unlikely to happen.
Any current or former Apple employees would be most welcome to add comment to this.