Is there any way to set a print range in Apple Numbers.app spreadsheets, to print just a subset of cells rather than entire document?
Apple's Numbers is designed in a fundamentally different way than Microsoft's Excel or other spreadsheet solutions. Numbers uses "Canvases" instead of large tables of thousands of columns and rows. This allows for placing tables, even those made up of a single cell, anywhere on the canvas needed. Instead of merging cells and hiding borders, (which of course can be done with Numbers) Numbers allows more freedom to create a document designed for printing. For example, placing text, charts or even graphics anywhere on the canvas that seems logical. Setting the print range in Excel only allows for a continuous subset of cells. Also, the ability to have several tables on a single canvas allows for more creative use of the space. (See this Apple Support article on printing with Numbers.)
One can still use a very large data set in a large table as well. However, this concept of making spreadsheets on canvases can open up many opportunities for print layouts. The OP does not state how their spreadsheet is laid out, but it appears from the brief description that is styled in a traditional manner, which is perfectly acceptable, but this limits how it can be presented for printing.
One method I use, particularly with printing off invoice or expense type sheets, is to keep the working data on a separate sheet from my print sheet. Using formulas, such as one would use in Excel, data can be easily and automatically displayed in a printable format.
Below is a very simple example. The Data sheet contains the data not for printing. The [Print] sheet contains two simple tables with a colored rectangle object in the background. Changing data in the Data sheet changes the totals in the Print sheet accordingly. In the case of a traditional spreadsheet, a subset of the table could be displayed in the print sheet, each cell with a reference to the corresponding data sheet cells desired to be printed. This table could then be formatted for printing by adjusting fonts, size and scaling as noted in the Apple Numbers Help link above.
Data Sheet [Non print]
Print Sheet - Print view
Looking at the image in this answer, I got inspired to try something and what I discovered is that if you play with the "content scale", adjusting the percentage or sliding the scale's button, you can achieve the same effect as window's print range moving of the blue lines. I did have to delete a couple of rows (that were empty to begin with) to make 4 pages turn into 2), so its not as convenient as Window's blue lines, but one can still make it work :)