Is there anything like this in iOS for iDevices ?
This question & top answer are very relevant.
Basically "yes", but not so much from a customer / end user standpoint. iOS has a diagnostics tool built in that is accessible from Apple once you give consent.
You can check your iOS device's health using Apple's main support site. From that page you can select iPhone (or iPad), find an issue that would warrant running the diagnostic (I chose power, unexpected shutdown/restart), verify that a restore didn't resolve the issue and then enter your phone number / email address to start the diagnostic process. Apple will text / email you a link to open. The link opens the iOS diagnostic tool, which requires you to click through a legal agreement before starting the test. The test results are sent back to Apple once they finish and you tap "done". Back on the support site the page will refresh and show any issues that were found with the device as well as support options for resolving them.
There is an free app called SensorMonitor, available from the AppStore, that can be used to check the functionality of various sensors in an iPhone/iPad, for example the compass, accelerometer, etc.
Description taken from the AppStore:
Description IMPORTANT : Currently, Sensor Monitor doesn't support iOS8.
Sensor Monitor displays several sensor raw value of your device. and log, use for development!
Also, 'Send over UDP' is available!
available sensor : magnetometer,gps, gyroscope,accelerometer, battery,proximity, mic level, touch
A couple of screen shots:
The Accelerometer and Gyroscope Screen
The GPS Screen
Admittedly, it unfortunately does not provide checks for most of the hardware that you mentioned (namely the backlight, ringtone, vibrator or camera).
Update August 2017
As per the comment, the app seems to be no longer available.
This was the icon:
This is the about box:
Maybe you can contact the developer at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Here is a web site about the app, Sensor Monitor. It does not support iOS 8, unfortunately.
Phone Doctor Plus has many diagnostics for the hardware.
iTunes link: https://appsto.re/us/GXURH.i
This software can make hardware test and diagnostic https://idevice.me/3utools-idevice-verification-report/
Apple has a utility called Apple Configurator 2 for macOS available from the Mac App Store. It enables you to pull console logs, manage profiles, device info, etc.
[ Screenshot of Apple Configurator 2 (macOS) showing iPhone console log.
For IOS function check, you can download free app Phone diagnostics from app store: https://itunes.apple.com/vn/app/phone-diagnostics/id1171677218?mt=8&ign-mpt=uo%3D4
It's easy to use: just launch the app and click on each function test buttons to perform the test.