How can I add myself to these groups so that I can have access to these areas in system preferences? I have sudo access but I'm not sure how to accomplish this through terminal.
Try running the below command in terminal. It will add your user to the admin group which should have access to all of system preferences. You might have to restart to make the changes take affect. Be sure and replace yourUserName with the username you want to have admin rights.
sudo dscl . append /Groups/admin GroupMembership yourUserName