I've seen cases where people record audio with the headphones port, so is it possible to listen to audio with the microphone port? I do not have any torx or triwing screwdrivers right now so a headphone port replacement is not possible. Thanks!
Recent Macs (from 2012) have a headphone jack which also has a contact for a microphone, using the same contacts as the iPhone headset. That's how you can record from the headphone jack.
Unfortunately, the microphone jack is not wired to support audio output, so there is no way to do it.
If you want to listen to headphones with your MacBook without a hardware repair, USB Audio devices are cheap and widely available. That would be the best way to go.