Relevant harware and software:
27" iMac (earliest version)
OS X 10.9.4 (latest version)
iPhone 5s (brand new)
iOS 7.1.2 (latest version)
iTunes 11.3 (54) (latest version)
Note: I have no back up of any previous phone, because I wanted a completely clean installation and configuration to try to avoid problems I had with earlier iPhones.
I have a new iPhone 5s, I plugged into my computer, opened iTunes, configured it, selected everything I wanted to sync to it from my iMac and proceeded to sync it.
None of the following synched to the iPhone.
email or email accounts
bookmarks for Safari
I haven't checked everything else, but this doesn't look friendly.
Oddly, apps, music and photos did sync to the iPhone from the computer.
In iTunes (with the iPhone connected to my iMac, I selected the device and checked the following under the Info tab and clicked on Sync. Still nothing.
Late addition, apparently iOS and an iPhone 5s will no longer configure email settings from Apple mail. If anyone is listening from Apple - this is silly.