I can enter all my Exchange 2010 data and it looks like everything is fine, but my contacts, calendar, and mail are never loaded from the exchange server, and mail gives me errors ("The connection to the mail server failed") when trying to connect. Do I need to update iOS or change Exchange 2010 settings?
The iOS 4.3.3 update changed the location cacheing dynamics, so Exchange wouldn't benefit in the least.
Deleting the Exchange account and re-entering the information is a good first step, before considering a restore. Does it actually confirm a connection to your exchange server when you've entered the information? If it doesn't, then we're at good odds the iPad isn't the problem at all.
If the server settings are good, and you're setting up the Exchange server in the proper area of the Mail accounts area, then I would consider following with @luca590 and restore.