How should I use the terminal to browse and manage my iPod Touch? I mean is there any way to do this just with terminal, not with installing MobileTerminal or something like that, or sshing into the iPod.
The free iPhone Explorer makes a drag-and-drop interface GUI interface to the iPod. From the image below shows a path to the device so, once it's mounted, the terminal should be able to find it there (I don't have an iPod to test this.)
Enable disk mode, then in terminal
$ cd /Volumes
cd into the directory that's your iPod.
From there, you can use ls and cd to browse your iPod from Terminal.
It depends on the iPod's version. If you have the older iPods with "Disk Mode" then yes, they can be mounted like an external drive, and then you can see the hidden files and folders containing your music library.
If it is an iPod touch, you will need to jailbreak it to achieve this as far as I know.
The answer by @hobs suggest you ssh to the iPod, but you state in your question you do not want to do this. The alternative would be to install
sshfuse locally, and then use ssh to mount the iPod. You can now just
cd to it somewhere on your local filesystem.
There are also other add-ons for the jailbroken iPod that will let you mount it locally. Browse the 'highlighted' apps section in Cydia.
iPhoneDisk is a free application which will mount an iOS device as if it were a hard drive. You can then use Terminal to access it through /Volumes. iPhoneDisk requires you to install MacFuse to work. It will even work with a non-jailbroken iPod, although you won't be able to access the full filesystem in this case.
For that and much more I always recommend iExplorer from Macroplant:
Perfect tool to do anything you want. At the moment I do not remember whether there is a seven day try and buy license, but until now it is worth every cent of the $35 single license fee...
I answered a similar question for an iPhone. I'm sure it would also work for an iPod.. the concept is the same, as it's an Apple USB device.
If you like paying for things.. you could probably checkout iExplorer like Garex mentioned.. I don't see the point when I own a Mac, and paid a lot for it. Downloading and using iExplorer just made me mad enough to find the right answer.