This list, the one accessed by System Preferences/Keyboard/Text, vanished when I updated to 10.9.2 (it survived the initial update to Mavericks). I do a lot of writing for the sciences, and I've spent years building that list. (recent MacBook Pro, 10.9.2).
Some sites say I should get the /Users/username/Library/Preferences/.GlobalPreferences.plist file from a backup, but I've searched the HD of my other computer (same specs but running 10.9.1, Replace/With list intact), and I can find no such file.
Other sites say it's in the "NSUserDictionaryReplacementItems array" in 10.9, but unfortunately I don't know what that means. (I'm a user, not a programmer.)
I've heard that it may be linked to Mavericks' new ability to sync this list to iOS devices, but that still doesn't explain why I can't find it on my 10.9.1 machine, which has been syncing to my phone (iPhone 4, iOS 5.x) for years.