Kind of, but it will require some mouse clicks.
That will pop up the "Force Quit Applications window. Shift-click the last item so that they are all highlighted and then press "Force Quit". It will ask you to confirm by clicking "Force Quit" again.
There are probably other ways you could do this with a single shortcut but they would require adding something to your Mac like a script or app. For instance, you could write an Automater app to quit everything and then create a shortcut in the system preferences to launch the app. I'm assuming you are asking how to do this on any Mac that is not modified with special programs or scripts. Ask a new question for writing a script to do this, if that is what you want.