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What are the various effects, in terms of usability, privacy and security, of storing your Apple ID in 'Users & Groups’ in your Mac System Preferences, like so?

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E.g., could one effect be not having to input your Apple ID password in the Mac App Store every time you download a new app?

What's the total list of implications of doing this?

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After associating and Apple ID with you user account you'll be able to use it to:

  • Reset your login password (unless FileVault is enabled)
  • Establish file and screen sharing access to the computer from another computer
  • Share files and screens with another computer after you log in

And for the particular case you mention regarding the Mac App Store, no, associating an Apple ID with a user account won't change the Store's password prompting.

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Connecting the two allows you to use your AppleID to reset your login password and log in to the computer for file and screen sharing using your AppleID. Nothing else.

It makes no difference to the App Store, iCloud, or iTunes as they don't use this AppleID.

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