Even after the 7.0 (1822) update, Mavericks Mail is not keeping synchronized with the GMail IMAP server. A mailbox with hundreds of messages in it suddenly has only the latest added message. Then it will show only messages added since that message.
I have tried mailbox Rebuild, re-checking mail, close Mail and open it again. Nothing seems to help. The messages in the Mail mailbox don't match what's in the filter by label on the web interface.
Is there a way to force Mail to re-synchronize a single Mail mailbox (to a GMail label) without deleting the entire account and spending another day or two rebuilding the whole database?
A related question asks about messages in Mail (inbox) that are not in GMail (inbox). This question is the reverse, messages in GMail (archived label) that are not in Mail (mailbox). The answer may or may not be the same!
NOTE: After 5 days of daily use, the mailbox has just restored itself. That's a long time to wait! Unfortunately, for the time being (until I detect a recurrence of the problem) it will be difficult for me to evaluate the effectiveness of solutions offered.