I've been on Mavericks since it was open to the general public.
But yesterday it started frequently refreshing he desktop icons, over and over again, possibly every 10-15 seconds. It's very strange.
I'm not moving any windows or moving the mouse around. Often I'm just reading a web page or some email and I'll notice the desktop repaint all the icons, then read a bit more, then notice it doing it again.
Macbook Pro retina, Mavericks. Have noticed on 2 extern displays (Apple Thunderbolt display at work and on 1080p TV/monitor at home). Laptop itself is typically closed.
I've posted other questions about desktop icon placement, not sure if any of that is related, just full disclosure.