I would like to create a file on my iPad, password protect it, and email it to a colleague. Is there a way to do this? It would have to be in a format that is readable by others, like a password protected PDF file or a password protected Word file.
molgar is right, just open in Pages app, set password and export as any file format and email it.
Open in another app
Choose export format
If you wanna email any file just download MailAnyFile from iOS AppStore.
Pages allows creating rich text files which can be password protected from within the app. It supports exporting to PDF and DOC.