When I try to boot into OSX, after 30 seconds or so the Apple symbol is replaced by a circle with a line through it. If I try single user mode, it stops at a certain point before booting entirely and says "waiting for root device."
However, I was able to successfully boot into OSX after trying five or so times. Then, after running for a few minutes it froze up. I've been able to repeat this a couple times, but 90% of the time it just shows the circle.
I do not believe this is a hardware problem because Windows works fine (I am typing this from Windows), but it doesn't scream "software problem" because it's intermittent.
PS: I replaced the stock hard drive last year with this: http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16820171569
I found a blog post http://www.klein2.de/does-apple-drop-the-intel-x25-m-ssd-support-with-10-8-3/ that seems to describe my problem, but I doubt that it is for the same reason. The screenshot with the black background is exactly what I see when I try to boot into single user mode.