Always have a good backup before you attempt any partition and/or filesystem changes!
That said, here are some answers to your list of questions.
1. ability to shrink/expand/add/delete partitions safely after both OSes installed, while safely preserving the data
- By default,
Disk Utility allows resizing only through changing the end of a partition (not the beginning). If you need to resize any partition both ways (like "shrink partition for one OS to expand partition for another"), then there may be a need to physically move data to accommodate that. This can be done only with third party tools like iPartition, which supports "non-destructive resize of HFS+ (including case-sensitive and journaled), FAT and NTFS partitions" (taken from the Coriolis Systems website). Even with a third party tool, you may not be able to resize partitions around in every combination that you can think of (you also need adequate free space to consolidate all files).
2. ability to upgrade to newer versions of OS X without risk of losing Windows or Data partition
- You can do this without issues with the setup you have linked to.
3. ability to upgrade / reinstall Windows without risk of losing OS X (including OS itself, applications, user data&settings) --  has it
- This is also possible with the setup you have linked to.
4. ideally, data shared for read & write between Windows and OS X
- The free solution to do this is to have the data partition formatted as FAT32. But this would limit individual file sizes to 4GB. Also, FAT32 does not have journaling, unlike NTFS and HFS+ that do. So recovery from data corruption is possible through some rudimentary means, but not as reliable as other filesystems.
- By default, OS X can read NTFS (Windows) volumes, but not write to it. On the other hand, by default, Bootcamp allows you to read the OS X volume, but not write to it.
- There are third party applications to allow read/write access to HFS+ volumes from Windows and to allow read/write access to NTFS volumes from OS X. The most popular ones being the solutions from Paragon Software.
5. ideally, no third-party [paid] tools / drivers required for the whole scheme to work
- See the above points. It's not possible to eliminate FAT32 from the scheme without third party tools/drivers (free or paid).
6. ability to easily transfer the whole setup to a new HDD (complicated for )
- Transferring to a larger HDD is going to involve some manual work. There is no easy way to clone it out since your partition size requirements in the larger HDD would be different. While partitioning would require some work, cloning all these partitions to another drive of the same size is possible using disk based cloning utilities like Clonezilla (this is feasible with larger disks with the partitions already created, but would require some more work for the OSes, especially Windows, to recognize the new size).
7. ideally, ability to have more than 2 partitions under Windows (i.e. 2+ data partitions)
- You can have multiple partitions, but the overall partition management is better managed through OS X.
8. risk of any OS to corrupt any partition should be not larger than in a single OS setup with its native partition
- This is more of a filesystem and cross platform filesystem driver question. Although third party tools/drivers for NTFS from OS X and HFS+ from Windows have existed for years, they cannot be guaranteed to be bug free. Without native read/write implementations from either OS for the other's filesystem, a regular backup (or even two) is a good practice to follow!