I've previously connected to a WiFi network on my iPhone but I have no way of finding out the password. Is there any way to recover the password after resetting my device to view saved WiFi passwords on the iPhone?
"after reset my device 'view saved wifi passwords on the iPhone' " answers your question I think? Do you have a mac that's connected to the same network? Then you can retrieve the password in the Keychain of the computer. (analogue for Windows systems)
Resetting the device either resets the settings (and wipes keychain entries) or erases the entire device and stars fresh (which also wiped the keychain).
Since iOS stores passwords for WiFi in the keychain, wiping it means the record of the password is gone.
Jailbreak your device to enable the use of the Cydia store. Then install "WiFi Passwords" (BigBoss) from Cydia. You will now be able to see all your saved passwords once you start the app.