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My mother was ill for quite some-time, and she didn't use her MacBook Air for almost 4 months now.

Before booting it up again, and start making use, please let me know if there are some necessary steps (or checks) needs to be performed.

For example: Should I fulling charge it, and then boot-up OR should I just plug-in to charge and boot-it up

what else should I check?

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Could you elaborate on what you feel may have happened in 4 months to cause an issue? Our guide on How to Ask has a nice section that explains how to show your research so that people can understand what you don't "get" and provide the best answer. – bmike Jun 27 '13 at 14:04
  1. Open the lid and press the power button.
  2. If it doesn't boot, plug it in to power and watch for the charge light to go from green to orange. (you don't need to wait and watch this, but this will tell you how the SMC and charge circuitry is working)
  3. Press the power button

There should be no problems. The only thing that could suffer is the battery, Li-Ion batteries lose power and if they lose a lot of power, they can't be charged anymore with original charger. Charging while first boot or fully charging and then booting should not make any difference.

Once you've done this, you'll know if the Mac is working or perhaps needs more troubleshooting.

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Also, you can use the <kbd> tag to indicate a key, like this: <kbd>KEY</kbd> – AMomchilov Jun 27 '13 at 14:05
I knew that I saw visual keys, but could not find the way to display them. Thanks for the advice, noted :) – b4d Jun 27 '13 at 14:08

The MacBook charger is sufficiently powerful to power the machine and charge the battery simultaneously, so the only thing I'd suggest for you to do is to cycle the battery once or twice and just proceed with regular use. So long as the MacBook was stored in a dry, safe place, there isn't any need to run hardware tests, as nothing would have magically broken itself from lack of use.

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Thanks @XAleXOwnZX. I would like to know what is "cycle the battery" please – I-M-JM Jul 13 '13 at 6:52
Charge the battery fully, discharge the battery through normal use, and repeat 2-3 times. – AMomchilov Jul 13 '13 at 17:11

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