I noticed a lot of people have a similar problem like me. Strange glitches in some programs on some controls. They appear totally random. The image shows only one program. It also appears in Safari, iMessage, XCode, Ecliplse. I've absolutely no Idea what could be the reason. Also Apple support doesn't have an answer yet. They told me to observe the problem.
It's the new MacBook Pro Retina 16 GB RAM and 2,6 GHz Model. 1 Week old. Mountain Lion 10.8.2
Edit Some People write that their issue came from a Ram upgrade. And the Ram clock speed was wrong. Here not possible, unopened Laptop.
Edit 2 Still observing the problem. Apple told me to use an other "Admin" account (They told me it's important to be an admin account) on the machine. No glitches yet. I'll update the question after some days using the second account.