Yup you can do that by using the View Options panel. Open the folder then from the View menu select the "Show View Options". This brings up the View Options panel. Here you can set your views for each folder.
For example, I have my Downloads folder set to Always open in List View and Sort By Date Added. This way the most recently downloaded file is always at the top. No matter what the view was configured in the previous folder, when I open the Downloads folder, it uses these settings.
I have many other folders set up in specific configurations. Work images is in a large cover flow layout. Icon development folder is in Icon View with large icons. etc... I'm sure you can come up with many different configurations.
If you have a configuration you want to be the default for any new folders or folders that don't have a custom view configured, click on the Use As Defaults button.