I was trying to save the calendar data on my iPhone to my Outlook calendar. I connected via iTunes and the sync caused all my iPhone calendar data to disappear, overwriting it with the data from the Outlook calendar. How can I restore my iPhone calendar data?
You may be able to restore your Calendar from a previous back-up in iTunes. Check the time and date of the previous back-ups. Windows: Edit > Preferences > Devices tab Mac: iTunes > Preferences > Devices tab
Restore from your back-up and see if your events come back. Restore by right-clicking (Option+click on a Mac) on the device and selecting "Restore from back-up"
The best way to sync with Outlook would be to download the iCloud Control Panel. This lowers your risk of losing Calendar data, as in your case. Of course, you need to have iCloud enabled on your device as well. This requires iOS 5 or later. You can check this under: Settings > iCloud You can download the iCloud Control Panel here: http://apple.com/icloud/setup
Make sure that when it is installed and you are signing in, that you use the same AppleID that is used with iCloud on your device.