I am completely new to Automator. I have a folder action setup to copy my Camera Uploads folder from DropBox to iPhoto. Currently, this only occurs when I open Automator and execute it. Can I set this up to run on a schedule, i.e. when the computer starts up, once a week, etc.
You could use Lingon (Mac App Store link) to set up a schedule to run the Automator action (or pretty much any other program/command for that matter). It's a GUI interface to the launchd command that allows scheduling by time, or on specific events (I believe system start/wake is one of them).