The standard iPad/iPhone/iPod Touch cables are identical and interchangeable. As the Apple store item notes:
This USB 2.0 cable connects your iPhone, iPad or iPod — directly
or through a Dock — to your computer's USB port for efficient syncing
and charging or to the Apple USB Power Adapter for convenient charging
from a wall outlet.
However, the chargers are different - as commenter @Mark noted, it takes a long time to charge an iPad with an iPod charger.
iPhone/iPod Touch charger specs (from Amazon):
Input:110-240V 50/60Hz 1.0A, Output:5V==1A
iPad charger specs (from Amazon):
Input: 100-240V 0.45A 50/60Hz, Output : 5.1V 2.1A 10W
The iPad charger can output twice the wattage and current of the iPod charger, so your iPad will charge a lot more slowly if you use your iPod charger (at about a quarter of the speed using the iPad charger). If your iPad is on, it may not even charge because it's power usage is higher than the iPod charger's capacity to charge, as noted in Adam's answer in the question you've quoted.